CBD has made headlines recently. CBD, or cannabidiol, is the cannabis plant’s second most prevalent cannabinoid, trailing only tetrahydrocannabinol in popularity (THC). To be clear, Cannabidiol does not produce the same psychoactive effects as THC, so why is there so much buzz about it? The reason for this is that Cannabidiol has shown incredible potential in areas that medication has yet to be able to properly cure.
About CBD (Cannabidiol)
Cannabis, which contains all 113 cannabinoids, has been used medicinally for over 5,000 years and was even a patented treatment in the 19th and 20th centuries. THC was utilized for therapeutic purposes as early as 400 AD, according to evidence.
CBD was discovered in 1942, a year before THC, and was assumed to be the active ingredient in the plant’s euphoric properties at the time. Because the chemistry of Cannabidiol was not discovered until 1963 and that of THC in 1964, researchers struggled to determine which cannabinoids were responsible for specific effects.
Cannabidiol Atomic Structure
CBD and THC share the same chemical formula, C21H30O2, which translates to 21 carbon atoms, 30 hydrogen atoms, and 2 oxygen atoms. Their molecular masses are also fairly comparable. So, what distinguishes the two molecules from one another? There seems to be one little difference between these two molecules. THC has a cyclic ring in its molecular structure, while CBD has a hydroxyl group, and this is enough to distinguish their pharmacological properties.
Is Cannabidiol Or CBD Oil Legit In the United States Of America (USA) And the United Kingdom (UK)?
In 1970, the United States imposed Prohibition, making the use of cannabis illegal. Because it was illegal to obtain cannabis for research purposes, this statute limited research into cannabis and its diverse potential medical properties. The Farm Act, which was passed in December 2018, legalized hemp as a source of CBD with less than 3% THC. With a THC concentration of less than 2%, hemp is legal throughout parts of Europe.
CBD is authorized in foods in the UK as “novel foods,” unlike in the US, where edibles are not officially endorsed. However, the use of cold-pressed CBD oil or flour in the manufacture of edibles is prohibited. Here are some instances of “new foods” that fall into this category:
- CBD supplements come in the form of capsules, oils, or sprays.
- CBD candies, gummies, and sweets
- Beverages containing CBD, such as beer, tea, and sodas
- Snacks and energy bars laced with CBD
Legally, a Cannabidiol consumable must contain no THC to be legal; however, the 2% limit only applies to hemp cultivation, not extracted components.
Notwithstanding such ambiguities and flaws, CBD has grown into a $9 billion industry, with about 7% of Americans acknowledging trying it. According to recent reports, the consumption of CBD in the United Kingdom will increase by 700% by 2020, resulting in a $2.1 billion business. In the United Kingdom, it is believed that 300,000 people consume CBD.
How Does CBD (Cannabidiol) Interact Or Work In The Body?
CB1 receptors and CBD
CBD interacts with a wide range of neurotransmitters and affects various systems. CBD has indirect interactions with both the CB1 and CB2 receptors. Cannabidiol is a CB1 receptor-negative allosteric modulator. This implies that it alters the structure of the receptor, making it impossible for THC to connect to it and produce the psychoactive effects for which it is famous. This regulating effect on the CB1 receptor also allows it to carry out additional functions.
CBD modulates the psychotropic effect of a companion cannabinoid, THC, to create a classic effect, understating the antipsychotic effects while allowing both these effects of THC to be expressed as it engages with several other substances and the endocannabinoid system, as it interacts with other cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system.
Lipids Heterocyclic Hydrolase would be influenced by CBD
CBD affects the CB2 receptor by inhibiting Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH), an enzyme that breaks down anandamide, the body’s endogenous cannabinoid. As a result, this endocannabinoid remains active in the body’s system for a longer amount of time, allowing it to exert its harmonizing effects throughout the body. Because of its ability to generate drive and pleasure, anandamide has been dubbed the “blissful Atom.”
Capsaicin Receptor and Cannabdiol
TRPV1, which mediates pain perception, inflammation, and body temperature, is one of the other significant physiological receptors that CBD interacts with. CBD is thought to be a receptor stimulator.
G-protein coupled Receptors and CBD
CBD also interacts with adenosine receptors, which are best known for their anti-anxiety properties and also play important roles in heart oxygenation and coronary blood flow. The anti-inflammatory effects of adenosine receptors can be found all over the body.
5-Hydroxytryptamine Receptors and Cannabidiol
CBD has been proven to interact with 5-HT receptors at high concentrations, directly stimulating this serotonin-producing process and promoting a variety of biological and cognitive processes including anxiety, sadness, hunger, habit, sleep, pain threshold, vomiting, and diarrhea.
GPCR Receptors and CBD
Last but not least, CBD interacts with the GPR55 receptor, where it acts as an antagonist, deactivating several related activities. Cell proliferation and bone density modulation are both regulated by GPR55. By inhibiting this receptor, aberrant cell proliferation, as well as bone resorption, may be reduced. This suggests that it could play a role in the treatment of osteoporosis. It’s worth noting that the GPR55 receptor was previously known as the CB3 receptor.
The Consequences Of Having An Adverse Effect Of CBD
We’ve gone over the fundamentals of how Cannabidiol works with different receptors, but we haven’t touched on the entourage effect. CBD, like other cannabinoids like THC, terpenes, and other compounds, has a synergistic impact with other compounds that can boost the adverse effects it has on the body. As a result, the 113 or so cannabinoids found in cannabis plants can all work together to provide a system-wide cumulative effect that cannot be separated by examining Cannabidiol alone.
CBD’s (Cannabidiol) Key Medicinal Benefits
Animal tests as well as a few remaining case reports have shown stunning potential benefits for CBD and the entire line of cannabinoids identified to date. While human studies are scarce due to legal red tape that has tied researchers’ hands for decades, studies and a few remaining medical studies have already shown stunning potential benefits for CBD and the entire line of cannabinoids identified to date. The key areas of study for CBD’s use have been pain relief from inflammation, anti-anxiety benefits, sleep-wake cycle impacts, and antidepressant properties.
Because of differences in metabolic functions, diets, lab conditions, CBD bioavailability, and dose variations, the benefits seen in lab animals cannot be readily generalized to the human population. Nonetheless, testimonials concerning CBD’s efficacy for the aforementioned illnesses abound, and a population hungry for medicinal solutions to pressing concerns is not going to be silenced.
However, because the endocannabinoid system regulates so many neurobiological roles in the body and CBD interacts with it indirectly, CBD has the potential to affect the same areas that the endocannabinoid system regulates, such as appetite, immunity, fertility, pain control, neurological functions, oxidation reactions, and the sleep cycle.
Is CBD (Cannabidiol) Harmless?
CBD has a positive safety profile and little, if any, negative effects, as per the World Health Organization. Cannabidiol is implicated in many drug detoxification processes, and certain situations, it may cause a medicine to be more or less potent than intended, therefore any adverse effects identified are often the consequence of drug interactions that need to be examined much more closely. There is no indication of a global health addiction problem or health-related side effects connected with pure Cannabidiol, according to WHO.
A countrywide survey of over 4,000 people found that 22% of individuals polled use Cannabidiol to replace pharmaceutical pharmaceuticals, primarily pain relievers, Tylenol, opioids, sleep aids, and anti-anxiety medications.
We can see why CBD has become such a global overnight phenomenon if it can help individuals get off more harmful pharmaceuticals, generate favorable physiological changes, and give the user a sense of well-being.